Saturday, May 23, 2020

How does the text conform to, or deviate from, the conventions of a particular genre, and for what purpose Free Essay Example, 1000 words

Shukhov is sentenced to a life of imprisonment and cruel punishment in this Soviet gulag system for acts of espionage, though he is innocent. In like manner, Alyoshka is a devout Baptist, full of faith but is imprisoned, all the same. The heartlessness of Stalinism in this camp is attested by: scarcity of food and food rationing and the compelling of prisoners to work in freezing temperature, as long as this temperature does not fall below -42oC. Overall, there is lucidity in observing that Solzhenitsyn’s work is not dedicated to withstanding the highhandedness of Stalinism, but to reveal to the world, the inhuman excesses of Stalinism. The import of this is that One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich is different from other film genres since it surpasses the common role of entertainment to take on a moral cause (Solzhenitsyn, 1988, 125). The themes and motifs that Solzhenitsyn’s work advances presents a point of conformance with other works of art. Some of the themes that Solzhenitsyn presents for discussion include the struggle for human dignity (the depiction of harsh life in the prison camp invites this), the immorality of unjust punishment (the inhuman condemnation to a harsh life on false basis underscores this), and the need for faith (as is presented by the resilient nature of the devout Alyoshka). We will write a custom essay sample on How does the text conform to, or deviate from, the conventions of a particular genre, and for what purpose or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now In the 1950s, movies, stories and other works of art were still conveying positive social values and virtues. Other stories had obviously been produced that time, to underscore these themes. The importance of these themes is that they shape the story’s’ plotline and Solzhenitsyn’s principal objectives for writing this story. Had these themes not been factored, Solzhenitsyn could have come up with a totally different story and plotline. Some of the literary devices that Solzhenitsyn uses also help him conform to the conventions of a particular genre, and to show the time when the novel was set. Among these literary devices there is symbolism that plays an important role in the story. Shukhov’s spoon, which he strives to keep at all cost, symbolizes his personality or individuality. Tsezar’s parcel that contains fine food stands for the pleasure of the world. Bread represents the novel’s spiritual and physical substance. Before and after this story, many literary works that use symbolism abound. In â€Å"One Day in Life of Ivan Denisovich† there are many symbols applied by the author to express the ideas he wanted to share with readers. Conclusion The foregoing clearly shows that Solzhenitsyn uses stylistic devices and other elements of literary works such as themes and motif to both distinguish his work from and to identify his work with others.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay on Arthur Mervyn - 1028 Words

Charles Brockden Browns novel, Arthur Mervyn, has been read by people across America from the late eighteenth century up until today. Brown targeted many audiences in this novel but there is one in particular that not only had an impact on people then, but can still captivate many in todays society. That specific group involves people who are fighting an incurable illness, such as the Yellow Fever, as described in the book. Although it was written in the late 1700s, people in the twenty-first century can still relate to the characters in the book, and understand what they were feeling at that time. The goal of this paper is to show that Browns main intended audience was towards the incurably sick and that even over two hundred†¦show more content†¦I felt as if I inhaled a poisonous and subtle fluid...some fatal influence seemed to seize upon my vitals; and the work of corrosion and decomposition to be busily begun (144). People often times make assumptions about things when they dont really know what is going on. This is still the case in todays time, when people assume the cause is one thing when it could be something completely different. Mervyn seemed to know at this point that he was destined to die. Most of the fever victims had no hopes of living once they contracted the illness. He later found sanctuary in the home of Welbeck, in hopes of breathing his last there, stating, All I sought was the privilege of dying alone (182). The Yellow Fever is no different than many incurable diseases that we are fighting in todays society, such as AIDS, Hepatitis AB, Herpes, certain Cancers, Ebola and the Killer Flu. When a person contacts some incurable disease, they must learn to live the rest of their lives with it, no matter how long that may be. Victims of these diseases can read Arthur Mervyn and relate to the way that the victims of the Yellow Fever felt; the only thing left to look forward to in life is death. Scientists today still havent found cures for so many of these diseases, just like the physicians in ArthurShow MoreRelatedSummary Of The Family Notebook 2051 Words   |  9 PagesCharacterization of Noel Kegalle (i) – includes descriptions of the author’s grandfather, Phillip. There are a series of things mentioned that are primarily in their family like liquor, diabetes, and hot tempers. †¢ More characterization of the author’s father, Mervyn Don’t Talk to Me About Matisse: It is a combination of multiple writing styles including journal entries and poems. Dives into cultural aspects of Ceylon. Tabula Asiae – describes the false maps of Ceylon that Ondaatje’s brother has in his room andRead MoreRunning in the Family3954 Words   |  16 Pagesnarrative together in an orderly fashion. The focus of the book is Michaels family. The Ondaatje family had lived in Ceylon for centuries, so he has a large number of relatives who live there. The main focus of the book is on his alcoholic father, Mervyn Ondaatje. He also focuses on his outrageous grandmother Lalla. In the acknowledgments, Michael notes that his book is a composite, or a mixture of his two return journeys to Sri Lanka in 1978 and 1980. He stayed for several months each time, firstRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s I Became Insane, With Long Intervals Of Horrible Sanity 1497 Words   |  6 Pagesfriend in the area. The summer after Brown published Wieland, Brown and his friend were diagnosed with yellow fever. Brown eventually recovered, but his friend died. He became very busy with work shortly after his friend’s death. He published Arthur Mervyn and Edgar Huntly. The novels explored issues such as insanity, an atmosphere of mystery, suicide and murder. After 1800, Charles Brockden Brown became more interested in having a family (Rollyson 62). He began his courtship while writing his lastRead MoreThe Beginnings Of Cinema United States1931 Words   |  8 Pageslate 1920s arose new film genres: the screens came to be dominated by musicals (with many films of dances, especially Busby Berkeley) and gangster films, which dealt two issues of today: the Great Depression and Prohibition (eg, Little Caesar , of Mervyn LeRoy, in 1930, or Scarface, the terror of the underworld , Howard Hawks, 1932). The classic genre of the principles of sound became known as a type of comedy screwball , characterized by a fast - paced action and irreverent humor (Capra, Hawks).Read MoreSupernatural in American Fiction Essay2928 Words   |  12 Pagesearly days did not understand much about their universe. In a vain attempt to explain what befell them, the Puritans built up such personifications [and] marvelous interpretations32 as to reveal their own morbid fascination with the unnatural. Arthur Millers The Crucible best illustrates this hypocritical attraction-abhorrence nature of the Puritans. They believe that the forest was the Devils last preserve.33 Hence, when the Salem minister, Reverend Parris, discovers a group of girlsRead MoreThe United States Of America2230 Words   |  9 Pageslate 1920s arose new film genres: the screens came to be dominated by musicals (with many films of dances, especially Busby Berkeley) and gangster films, which dealt two issues of today: the Great Depression and Prohibition (eg, Little Caesar , of Mervyn LeRoy, in 1930, or Scarface, the terror of the underworld , Howard Hawks, 1932). The classic genre of the principles of sound became known as a type of comedy screwball , characterized by a fast - paced action and irreverent humor (Capra, Hawks).Read More Jamaican Culture and Society Essay2959 Words   |  12 PagesWater. Maggibbon Kee: London. 1957 Knight, Franklin. The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism. Oxford University Press: New York, 1990. Lawson, Winston Arthur. Religion and Race: African and European Roots in Conflict- A Jamaican Testament. Peter Lang Publishing: New York, 1996. Morris, Mervyn. Making West Indian Literature University of the West Indies 2013. Web 9 May 2015. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1280context=anthurium Read More The Death of the ‘Authorlessness Theory’? Essay6470 Words   |  26 Pages1951], hostile about so many other things, were in agreement that a director was simply one more tool to be used in the making of motion pictures.† (136) If Victor Fleming was a tool of MGM, lacking the authority of Mayer or producer Mervyn LeRoy, how can he be said to be the film’s author? In the other examples I have given, authority and control were crucial prerequisites for the position. Fleming was the third director for The Wizard of Oz. King Vidor (the film’sRead MoreChildrens Literature13219 Words   |  53 Pages(Bingham and Scholt 1980). Amusing books written specifically for children would have been economically and psychologically impossible (Townsend 1996). Children would probably have listened to adult works such as Beowulf, Song of Roland, El Cid, King Arthur, and Robin Hood. Children and adults also enjoyed folk tales and literature rich with fantasy and imagination, as myth was the way they made sense of their world. While there were no manuscripts devoted specifically to â€Å"children’s literature,† thereRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words   |  58 Pages Death Takes a Holiday, Easy Living Warner Brothers --------------- * Known For: Working-class grittiness; also, musicals and biopics * In Charge: Jack Harry Warner, Hal Willis * Directors: Michael Curtiz, Mervyn LeRoy, Busby Berkeley * Actresses: Bette Davis, Joan Blondell, Barbara Stanwyck * Actors: James Cagney, Edward G. Robinson, Paul Muni, Erroll Flynn, Humphrey Bogart * Typical Films: Little Caesar, Public Enemy, I Am

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organizational Behavior (Work-Related Stress) Free Essays

string(94) " look into motivating and satisfying them in order to safeguard the interests of the company\." | Organizational Behavior| a) What are the major sources of work-related stress? b) Examine the role of gender in work-related stress| | | | Adnan Malik – H00133313 Chris Andrew D’Silva – H00115516 Muhammad Mohsin – H00114888 Muhammad Hammad Malik – 091616937 Word Count: 2200 Date: 27/10/2012 | This essay aims to discuss major sources of work-related stress and provide an analysis of the reasons that cause stress among both males and females, and whether similarities exist between them. So, what is stress? Comprehensively, stress is a typical instinctive reaction to situations that make one feel pressured or agitated in any way. For instance, when a person senses any sort of threat, he/she delivers an automatic stress response or the â€Å"fight or flight† reaction. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior (Work-Related Stress) or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thus, this reaction is the body’s means to protect themself. Moreover, stress can help a person to remain attentive and focussed during their course of work, and aid them to complete tasks or meet deadlines. In case of an emergency, stress can also help one defend or protect their life. Beyond a particular level however, stress is no longer helpful and begins to cause damage to one’s health, productivity and lifestyle (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2000). Therefore, it is important to determine when one undergoes stress, the reasons for it as well as the many ways through which, they can cope with it. All this can improve their psychological and mental well-being significantly. As identified by The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) using Palmer Et Al and Cary Cooper’s developments of the working models of work-related stress, there are six significant likely sources of stress or stressors at a work place in general. These are: work demands, work relationships, a person’s control over work, an individual’s role within an organization, career development and the interface between home and work. To begin with, work demands and physical demands consist of stressors that are constitutive to the job. These include working environments, workload (overload and underload), working hours and even technology to a certain extent. Working environments: It is obvious that undesirable working settings such as workplaces with high levels of noise, bad lightings or extreme temperature can stress workers and down their performances. Furthermore, this can give rise to mental as well as physical illnesses or disorders. Workload: employees usually endure a surplus of workload (work overload) or a deficit of workload (work under load). The two are quantitative and qualitative by nature and may result in elevated stress levels. Quantitative overload relates to circumstances wherein workers are required to do a lot more work in a stipulated time period and qualitative overload refers to situations in which workers believe that they would be unable to perform required tasks because they lack the ability or expertise needed. Likewise, quantitative and qualitative work under load also leads to stress, although, it may not be so evident. Quantitative under load occurs when workers tend to get bored as a result of having very little work with a lot of available time. Whereas qualitative under load relates to an employee’s feeling of reduced motivation due to their dull or monotonous job routine. Working hours: working for long hours can lead to stress; diminishing a worker’s productivity and consequently lead to mental or physical ill-health. A recent study states that working for 11 hours a day can increase possibilities of a heart disease due to high stress levels. The study features at the same level to individuals who smoke; individuals who have high cholesterol levels and even individuals with high blood pressure. Technology: similarly, reports have revealed that excessive use certain information technology (IT) in companies by its employees can also cause negative physiological as well as psychological problems. Secondly, maintaining good, healthy relationships with superiors, subordinates and co-workers are very important at a work place. Frequent conflicts, trust issues, aggravation and oppression are all factors expected to elevate stress levels. Besides this, in most cases, when individuals meet successes, they tend to abandon their ties with colleagues, friends and behaviour. This theory is called ‘status incongruity’. Undergoing such a negative transformation could lead to damaging effects, psychologically as well as physically. Further to this, an individual’s control over his/her work is another source of stress. Basically, it is a person’s authority and way in which they perform given tasks. High levels of stress are usually linked with low levels of one’s control over their job and vice versa. Fourthly, the individual’s role within an organisation: a prime cause of stress that is associated with the ‘job role’ of an individual along with the demands made upon him/her. There are a number of ways through which this source of stress is one most workers usually face. These are: Role Conflict: a form of social conflict initiated by a person being obliged to play discrete and mismatched roles. Conflict of roles can arise at an individual level, wherein one person is required to take on separate roles for diverse groups, or in a workplace in which a person is needed to comply with several roles in one particular group. For example, an individual who undertakes the role of a worker as well as a supervisor endures role conflict. Role obscurity: this usually arises when a person lacks clarity about a job and is uncertain about the anticipated manner in which he/she should conduct themselves. For example, people generally tend to be quite stressed on the first day of work because they are not fully certain of their responsibilities or the way the company operates. Both role obscurity and role conflict are highly related to increased stress levels and further lead to reduced levels of job satisfaction. Accountability for others and managerial stress: people who are accountable for other people in a workplace often suffer from increased stress compared to others. People responsible for this are usually managers or supervisors. For example, some managers of companies are responsible for the actions of their subordinates. They have to look into motivating and satisfying them in order to safeguard the interests of the company. You read "Organizational Behavior (Work-Related Stress)" in category "Essay examples" Apart from this they’re personalities generally demand them to be very competitive, pressurized and contentious and such characteristics can prove damaging to their physical and mental state. Another potential stressor is the development of one’s career: an imperative source of stress that talks about job insecurity, over-promotion and under-promotion, acquisitions and mergers and occupational locking-in. Job insecurity: in most cases, an individual’s risk of losing his/her job or being unemployed is directly linked with various illnesses and health problems. Over-promotion under-promotion: over-promotion refers to a situation in which an employee acquires responsibilities that surpass their abilities and skills and the latter refers to a situation, wherein an individual is not given enough responsibilities that meet his/her ability. Both such circumstances can lead to significant levels of stress and furthermore deteriorate a person’s psychological state. Acquisitions and mergers: these affect both executives (managers, directors etc. and subordinates who are then required to conform to the rules, objectives and manners of the new establishment. Occupational locking-in: this circumstance arises when a person is unable to shift from their current job. Lastly, the work and home interface, also known as the balance between work and life is a major source of work related s tress that comprises of events that take place external to the work place of an individual but embarks negative effects on his/her conduct at work. These events may be concerns associated to family, financial problems and opposing personal and company views. Role of gender in work-related stress: According to Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, stress is what we feel when we have to respond to a demand on our energy. Stress is a natural part of life, and occurs whenever there are significant changes in our lives, whether positive or negative. There are many situations that cause stress such as financial worries, work overload, unemployment, relationships, parenting, balancing work and family, caregiving, health problems, losses, holidays, competitiveness, peer pressure and lack of time (Canadian Mental Health Association, n. d. ). Workplace stress according to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that can result from conflicts between job demands on the employee and the amount of control an employee has over meeting these demands (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and safety, 2000). Hoel, Zapf Cooper have explained the reasons of workplace stress developing due to changing environments. They state that during the 1980’s work environments were transformed by globalization, privatization, process re-engineering, mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliances and joint ventures. With time a situation known as ‘burnout’ occurred. In the 1990’s the workplace suddenly changed. Firms started to downsize, delayer and flatten. As a result redundancy and organizational change occurred. Technology started shaping in which has increased the work pace and caused information overload. Consequently job intensification and work insecurity occurred (Hoel et al. , 2002). When it comes to gender, there are a number of wants both male and female desire. For males it is higher pay in order to increase their standard of living, and promotions to boost their status in society. What is more they require recognition for their work and more leisure time to be able to fulfil household commitments. On the other hand, for females they want to have flexible work timings since they take care of children and perform house duties. Moreover, they desire to work in an environment where they are supported and taken care of. As a result of this, they remain loyal to their job. Also, they want to work in a decent reputable firm where their ideas are appreciated and implemented which in turn increases their job performance. Lastly, they demand respect and trust from fellow subordinates. There are a number of reasons why individuals both male and female get work related stress. A detailed analysis of the factors that causes stress for both genders will be presented. For females, one factor that causes stress is balancing both life and work. This is difficult and tough to manage. The reason is due to being away from home and spending long hours at the office which causes them to miss their family and children. Another cause is procrastinating. This refers to leaving the project or assignment to the last minute which results in high levels of anxiety, tension and worry. Also, over-committing is another reason. This means that one has to try and think how he/she will fulfil least important priorities before moving onto the top priority tasks. In addition to this not setting priorities can cause high levels of stress. This means that the individual would feel that he/she is overworking. Both mental and physical overload occurs. Poor relationships with co-workers and subordinates can also be a contributing reason of stress. Without good elationships, assignments will be difficult to complete, teamwork is limited and strained, and it will be difficult to get assistance when required. Poor communication is another cause of stress. This refers to information being misinterpreted, not understood; details omitted, which causes confusion, and re doing the work all over again. Lastly confusion on where certain documents are located i s a factor for stress occurring. As a result of all these factors, women are more likely to report burnout, stress-related illness, or a desire to leave their jobs (International Labour Organization, 2001). In the case of males, job insecurity is one factor that causes stress. Due to economic changes and pressures the working environment is gradually decreasing over time. This is caused by reorganizations, mergers, takeovers; downsizing and other changes have become major players in creating stress. Moreover, higher demand of performance by chief operating officers is another factor. As employees get promoted there is a greater amount of workload, extremely long hours to work and high expectations all cause them to be both physically and mentally drained. Advanced technology is another reason. Managers expect that all workers should increase productivity, speed and efficiency in completing their tasks. This is difficult for staff as they are under increased amounts of pressure. Adjusting to the new workplace can be a challenge to newer staff. This includes learning the proper styles of communication and getting to know co-workers, supervisors and bosses. This in turn causes stress. Lastly, personal problems are also another reason for stress. If there are difficulties at home, individuals tend to carry their issues to the workplace which leads them to being unfocused, depressed and having a lack of motivation to work. On comparing the reasons of stress for both males and females it can be noted that men tend to show physical deterioration as a response to stressful situations whereas women generally exhibit psychological symptoms (Wichert, 2002). To prevent stress in the workplace, companies adopt some methods. One method is to provide fitness and wellbeing programs such as reduced gym membership rates, playing sports, team building exercises, and providing play areas for mothers’ children. Also, by organizing company events, parties and social gatherings employees can enjoy themselves, have fun, and develop new relationships with ew people. In conclusion, stress cannot be totally prevented at the workplace but can be significantly reduced if the firms decide to implement stress-reducing measures such as fitness programs and fun, social events and team building exercises. Regardless of gender, both men and women tend to have work related stress but the level of stress for females is relativ ely higher than males mainly due to domestic responsibilities. Bibliography: Aziz, S. and Cunningham, J. (2008). Workaholism, work stress, work-life imbalance: exploring gender’s role.. Gender in Management [online]. 23, p. 553-566. Available from: ;http://ezproxy1. hw. ac. uk:2147/journals. htm? articleid=1752041;. [Accessed 25 October 2012]. Melanie, B. (2005). Stress in the Workplace: A General Overview of the Causes, the Effects, and the Solutions. Workplace Stress [online]. 1, p. 1-44. Available from: ;http://www. cmhanl. ca/pdf/Work Place Stress. pdf;. [Accessed 25 October 2012]. How to Keep Control Over the Work Environment  [online]. (2009). Available from: ;http://www. exforsys. com/career-center/personal-excellence/keep-control-over-the-work-environment. html;. [Accessed 25/10/2012]. Stress at Work  [online]. 2004). Available from: ;http://www. theworkfoundation. com/downloadpublication/report/69_69_stress_at_work. pdf;. [Accessed 24/10/2012]. Stress at a workplace  [online]. (2007). Available from: ;1. http://www. hse. gov. uk/research/hsl_pdf/2003/hsl03-02. pdf;. [Accessed 26/10/2012]. Bloomberg (2011). Stress  [online]. Available from: ;http://www. bloomberg. com/news/2011-0†¦ tudy-says . html;. [Accessed 26/10/2012]. Howard Kahn (2011). Organizational Behavior. UK: Heriot Watt. Available from: ;/webapps/blackboard/execute/launcher? type=Course;id=_65776_1;url=;. [Accessed 24/10/2012]. How to cite Organizational Behavior (Work-Related Stress), Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Romeo ; Juliet Essay Example For Students

Romeo ; Juliet Essay Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeares plays about tragedy. It is about two lovers who commit suicide when their feuding famillies prevent them from being together. The play has many characters, each with its own role in keeping the plot line. Some characters have very little to do with the plot but some have the plot revolving around them. Friar Lawrence does not have very much time on stage but the time he does have is crucial to the plot line. Through his words Friar Lawrence demonstrates the he is a good intentioned, yet sometimes short-sighted, man who is not afraid to take risks to help others One of Friar Lawrences most favourable traits is how good intentioned he is. He may do something out of the ordinary if he thinks the outcome will help someone he cares for. For example, when he says In one respect Ill thy assistant be; for this alliance may so happy prove, to turn your households rancour to pure love, he is saying that the only reason he will marry Romeo and Juliet is because he hopes that the marriage will end the hostilities between the two houses. When he says Shall Romeo by my letters know our drift, and hither shall he come; and he and I shall watch thy waking, and that very night shall Romeo bear thee to Mantua. he tells Juliet how everything will be all right. Unfortunately, for all his good intentions the play still ends in tragedy. Friar Lawrence is a man who is not afraid to take risks when he feels it is neccesary to help someone. For example in Act 2, Scene 6, when he marries Romeo and Juliet, he is risking his reputation as a Friar so he can help the two lovers. Also, when he says Take thou this vial, being then in bed, and this distilled liquor drink though off; he is suggesting that Juliet drink a potion so that she might feighn her own death and avoid marrying Paris. This is an extremely risky thing to do because anything might happen to Juliet while she unconscious. Even after all Friar did to help Romeo and Juliet the play still ended in tragedy because of Friar Lawrences short sightedness. When the Friar married Romeo Juliet in secrecy, he did not think of all the complications that would arise but instead went on with the marriage because at that time he thought it was the right thing to do. In Act 4, Scene 1, he gave Juliet a sleeping potion without thinking of the possible outcomes of such an outrages plan. He admits that much of the fault of the tragedy lies in his hands when he says And her I stand both to impeach and purge myself condemned and myself excused, and when he say Her nurse is privy; and, if aught in this miscarried by myself. Although Friar Lawrence does not have an especially large role, his role is none the less important. It is because of his good intentions that he was willing to help his friends that Romeo and Juliet were married a key event in the play. It is because of his willingness to take risks for his friends that Juliet aqquired the sleeping potion another key event in the play. Finally, it was the shortsightedness of his actions that in part led to the deaths of the two lead characters. This demonstartes that Friar Lawrence was a man who was a man with good intentions who was willing to take risks to help his frieneds. .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .postImageUrl , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:hover , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:visited , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:active { border:0!important; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:active , .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uadfc5ff591e755c8a901b5539242c88a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Evaluating An Enthalpy Change That Cannot Be Measu Essay If he had been any other way, the play might not have turned out the way it did.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

A detailed description of the pharmacological treatments used in Alzheimer’s disease The WritePass Journal

A detailed description of the pharmacological treatments used in Alzheimer’s disease Introduction A detailed description of the pharmacological treatments used in Alzheimer’s disease IntroductionReferencesRelated Introduction The nervous system is involved in the transmission of signals for communication and for coordination of body systems. The principle cell of the nervous system is a neuron, the neuron components are a cell body, dendrites, axon, synaptic terminals and myelin sheath (not always). The cell body component of the neuron integrates signals and coordinates metabolic activities. Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation. The axon in the neuron conducts the signal and the synaptic terminals transmit the signals. The myelin sheath is the coating on some neurons that that acts as an insulator to speed the conduction of nerve impulses, usually around only the axon of a neuron. The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of chemical changes across the membrane of the neuron. The membrane of an unstimulated neuron is polarized- that is, there is a difference in electrical charge between the outside and inside of the membrane. The inside is negative with respect to the outside. Such polarization is established by maintaining an excess of sodium ions (Na+) on the outside and an excess of potassium ions (K+) on the inside. Na+/K+ pumps in the membrane actively restore the ions to the appropriate side. Other ions, such as large, negatively charged proteins and nucleic acids, reside within the cell. It is these large, negatively charged ions that contribute to the overall negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane as compared to the outside. In addition to crossing the membrane through leakage channels, ions may also cross through gated channels. Gated channels open in response to neurotransmitters, changes in membrane potential, or other stimuli. The following events characterize the transmission of a nerve impulse. Resting potential: The resting potential describes the unstimulated, polarized state of a neuron. Graded potential: A graded potential is a change in the resting potential. A graded potential occurs when the stimulus causes Na+ or K+ gated channels to open. Na+ channels open, positive sodium ions enter, and the membrane depolarizes (becomes more positive). If the stimulus opens K+ channels, then positive potassium ions exit across the membrane and the membrane hyperpolarizes (becomes more negative). Action potential: An action potential is capable of traveling long distances. If a depolarizing graded potential is sufficiently large, Na+ channels in the trigger zone open. In response, Na+ on the outside of the membrane becomes depolarized (as in a graded potential). Repolarization: In response to the inflow of Na+, K+ channels open, this time allowing K+ on the inside to rush out of the cell. The movement of K+ out of the cell causes repolarization by restoring the original membrane polarization. Soon after the K+ gates open, the Na+ gates close. Hyperpolarization: This is when K+ channels closes and more K+ has moved out of the cell. As a result, the membrane becomes hyperpolarized. Refractory period: The membrane is polarized, but the Na+ and K+ are on the wrong sides of the membrane. During this refractory period, the axon will not respond to a new stimulus. To re-establish the original distribution of these ions, the Na+ and K+ are returned to their resting potential location by Na+/K+ pumps in the cell membrane. Once these ions are returned to their resting potential the neuron is ready for another stimulus. Transmission of Nerve Impulses between Neurons: The nerve impulse (action potential) travels down the presynaptic axon towards the synapse, where it activates voltage-gated calcium channels leading to calcium influx, which triggers the simultaneous release of neurotransmitter molecules from many synaptic vesicles by fusing the membranes of the vesicles to that of the nerve terminal. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft, bind briefly to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron to activate them, causing physiological responses that may be excitatory or inhibitory depending on the receptor. The central nervous system (CNS) is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The other is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) to sensory organs (such as the eye and ear), other organs of the body, muscles, blood vessels and glands. The hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory problems and disorientation appear among the first symptoms. Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (hypoxia), encephalitis, or medial temporal lobe epilepsy. People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia- the inability to form or retain new memories. Cholinesterase is a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, a reaction necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation. Cholinesterase inhibitors work by increasing levels of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger involved in memory, judgment and other thought processes. Certain brain cells release acetylcholine, which helps deliver messages to other cells. After a message reaches the receiving cell, various other chemicals, including an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, break acetylcholine down so it can be recycled. Alzheimers disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Alzheimers disease is a result from an increase in the production of beta-amyloid protein in the brain that leads to nerve cell death. The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death. The following changes are more common in the brain tissue of people with AD: Neurofibrillary tangles which are twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell. Another change which is common in brain tissue of a patient with AD is neuritic plaques (containing beta-amyloid protein) mentioned above. This results in abnormal clusters of dead and dying nerve cells, other brain cells, and aberrant protein deposits. When nerve cells are destroyed, there is a decrease in the chemicals/electrical signal that helps nerve cells send messa ges to one another, which are called neurotransmitters. As a result, areas of the brain that normally work together become disconnected. The probability of having Alzheimers disease increases substantially after the age of 70 and may affect around 50% of persons over the age of 85. However Alzheimers disease is not a normal part of aging and is not something that certainly happens in later life, many people live to over 100 years of age and never develop Alzheimers disease. Fig 1 (alz.org/brain/images/09a.jpg) In fig 1 above is a view of how massive cell loss changes the whole brain in advanced Alzheimers disease. This illustration shows a crosswise slice through the middle of the brain between the ears. In the Alzheimer’s brain, the cortex shrivels up, damaging areas involved in thinking, planning and remembering. Shrinkage is especially severe in the hippocampus, an area of the cortex that plays a key role in formation of new memories. The ventricles spaces grow larger. The risks factors implicated in Alzheimer’s disease are age, ApoE4, Down’s syndrome, head injury, low education and also family history i.e. genes. The main risk factor for Alzheimers disease is increased age. As a population ages, the frequency of Alzheimers disease continues to increase. Studies show that 10% of people over 65 years of age and 50% of those over 85 years of age have Alzheimers disease. There are also genetic risk factors for Alzheimers disease. Most patients develop Alzheimers disease after age 70. However, 2%-5% of patients develop the disease in the fourth or fifth decade of life (40s or 50s). At least half of these early onset patients have inherited gene mutations associated with their Alzheimers disease. Also a child of a patient with early onset Alzheimers disease who has one of these gene mutations has a 50% risk of developing Alzheimers disease. Other risk factors for Alzheimers disease include high blood pressure (hypertension), coronary arter y disease, diabetes, and possibly elevated blood cholesterol. Individuals who have completed less than eight years of education also have an increased risk for Alzheimers disease. These factors increase the risk of Alzheimers disease, but this does not mean Alzheimers disease is necessarily expected in persons with these factors. The onset of Alzheimers disease is usually gradual, and it is slowly progressive. Problems of memory, particularly for recent events (short-term memory) are common early in the course of Alzheimers disease. Mild personality changes, such as less spontaneity, apathy, and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions, may occur early in the illness. As the disease progresses, problems in abstract thinking and in other intellectual functions develop. Further disturbances in behaviour and appearance may also be seen at this point, such as agitation, irritability and a deteriorating ability to dress appropriately. Later in the course of the disorder, affected individuals may become confused or disoriented. Eventually, patients will be unable to engage in conversation, become erratic in mood, uncooperative, and lose bladder and bowel control. In late stages of the disease, persons may become totally incapable of caring for themselves, and a result of this could be death. Those who develo p the disorder later in life more often die from other illnesses (i.e. heart disease). Fig 2 Deaths from Alzheimers disease: (alz.org/downloads/Facts_Figures_2011.pdf) From Fig 2 Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the country and the only cause of death among the top 10 in the United States that cannot be prevented, cured or even slowed. From the data in the graph, death rates have declined for most major diseases while deaths from Alzheimer’s disease have risen 66 percent during the same period. Unfortunately, there is no cure for AD. However there are goals in treating AD, these goals are to slow the progression of the disease (although this is difficult to do), manage behaviour problems, confusion, sleep problems, and agitation, modify the home environment and support family members and other caregivers. Cholinesterase blockers are one of the main treatments of AD. Cholinesterase inhibitors are prescribed to treat symptoms related to memory, thinking, language, judgment and other thought processes. The different cholinesterase inhibitors are Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galanthamine, Tacrine and Memantine. The three main drugs currently licensed for the treatment of AD are Donepezil, Rivastigmine and Galanthamine. Donepezil is the generic name and the brand name is Aricept. Donepezil is approved at all stages of Alzheimer’s disease. However the side effects of this drug are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and increased frequency of bowel movements. Galanthamine, brand name Razadyne, is approved for the mild to moderate stages of AD. The side effects of Galanthamine are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and increased frequency of bowel movements. Memantine (brand name Namenda), is approved for moderate to severe stages of AD, The side effects of this drug are headache, constipation, confusion and dizziness. Rivastigmine (brand name Exelon), approved for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s, the side effects of Rivastigmine are nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and increased frequency of bowel movements. Tacrine (also known as Cognex), this was the first cholinesterase inhibitor and was approved in 1993 but is rarely prescribed today; this is because of associated side effects which i nclude possible liver damage. Cholinesterase inhibitors work by increasing levels of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger involved in memory, judgment and other thought processes. Certain brain cells release acetylcholine, which helps deliver messages to other cells. After a message reaches the receiving cell, various other chemicals, including an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, break acetylcholine down so it can be recycled. But Alzheimer’s disease damages or destroys cells that produce and use acetylcholine, thereby reducing the amount available to carry messages. A cholinesterase inhibitor slows the breakdown of acetylcholine by blocking the activity of acetylcholinesterase. By maintaining acetylcholine levels, the drug may help compensate for the loss of functioning brain cells. The benefits of cholinesterase inhibitors are that people taking the cholinesterase inhibitor medications performed better on memory and thinking tests than those taking a placebo, or inactive substance. In terms of overall effect, most experts believe cholinesterase inhibitors may delay or slow worsening of symptoms for about six months to a year; although some people may benefit more dramatically or for a longer time. Namenda is approved to treat moderate-to-severe Alzheimers disease. Namenda works by a different mechanism than other Alzheimers treatments; it is thought to play a protective role in the brain by regulating the activity of a different brain chemical called glutamate. Glutamate also plays a role in learning and memory. Brain cells in people with Alzheimer’s disease release too much glutamate (Alzheimer’s Association 2007). Namenda helps regulate glutamate activity. Namenda works by blocking the receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. It is believed that glutamate plays an important role in the neural pathways associated with learning and memory. In brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, overexcitation of neurons produced by abnormal levels of glutamate may be associated with neuronal cell dysfunction (resulting in cognitive and memory deficits) and eventual cell death (leading to deterioration and collapse of intellectual functioning). By selectively blocking a type of glutamate receptor (NMDA receptor) while allowing for normal neurotransmission, Namenda may help reduce the excitotoxic effects associated with abnormal transmission of glutamate. (psychatlanta.com) Namenda may have increased benefit when used with Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne, or Cognex. Memantine, a voltagegated and uncompetitive NMDA antagonist with moderate affinity, can protect neurons from excitotoxicity. It was approved for treatment of the patients with moderate to severe AD.   (Alzheimer’s Association 2007) A growing body of evidence suggest that drugs indicated for other conditions may also possess preventive efficacy for AD. Among the most promising are antioxidants, nonsteroidal, statins, certain anti hypertensive agents, alcohol, fish oil and possibly estrogen. Antioxidants have been recommended for prevention of dementia. The use of natural antioxidants may inhibit damage to the muscarinic receptors caused by free radicals, possibly by preventing or treating AD. High dietary intake of vitamins C and E lower the risk of AD. Estrogen is a weak antioxidant, it is biologically plausible that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) could protect against AD (Zandi PP et al 2002). AD is more likely to develop in a person with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (Postiglione 1995). Antiatheroscleotic pharmacotherapies are used to treat atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, which then prevents AD from occurring (John B et al 2004). Folic acid is a AD preventer and is effective against AD. Folic acid is effective because it reduces homocysteine concentration, increased levels of homocysteine concentration increases the risk of AD. Statins is very effective at reducing the risk of AD. Statins reduce the risk of AD by reducing the cholesterol levels by interfering with the activity of enzyme. Moderate take of alcohol and intake of N-3 fatty acids reduces the risk of AD. Studies have shown that intake of N-3 fatty acids and weekly consumption of fish can decrease the risk of AD by 60 %. Pharmacological treatments of Alzheimers disease are limited. Recent observational studies have shown that use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against the development of the disease, possibly through their anti-inflammatory properties.  Ã‚   (Mahyar et al 2007) The results from research which has been carried out has been varied. Caffeine can be used as a treatment in Alzheimers disease (Chuanhai et al 2009). Caffeine causes most of its biological effects via antagonizing all types of adenosine receptors (ARs), as does adenosine, exerts effects on neurons and glial cells of all brain areas. In consequence, caffeine, when acting as an AR antagonist, is doing the opposite of activation of adenosine receptors due to removal of endogenous adenosinergic tonus. Caffeine, through antagonism of ARs, affects brain functions such as sleep, cognition, learning, and memory, and modifies brain dysfunctions and diseases i.e. Alzheimer’s disease. (Gary W et al 2009). Studies shows that people that take regular supplements decrease the risk of AD. Many people take folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B12, and vitamin E. However, there is no strong evidence that taking these vitamins prevents AD or slows the disease once it occurs. Recent studies have shown that people believe that the herb ginkgo biloba prevents or slows the development of dementia. However, high-quality studies have failed to show that this herb lowers the chance of developing dementia. Treatment of ancillary symptoms of Alzheimer disease has improved as well. Techniques have evolved to treat depression, sleeplessness, agitation, paranoia. Also family support is a cure in its own why which gives the patient a feel good feeling to overcome AD. References Volume 20, Supplement 1, 2010 Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine in Alzheimers Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases (Guest Editors: Alexandre de Mendonà §a and Rodrigo A. Cunha) Pages 3-15 Volume 20, Number 3, June 2010 Special Issue Basics of Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention (Editor: Jack de la Torre) Pages 687-688 Supplement 3, November 2010 Anesthetics and Alzheimers Disease (Guest Editors: Pravat K. Mandal and Vincenzo Fodale) November 2010 Pages 1-3 Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimers disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 1–26, January 2007, From mild cognitive impairment to prodromal Alzheimer disease: A nosological evolution J.L. Molinuevo, C. Valls-Pedret, L. Rami, Volume 1, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 146-154 G. Waldemar; B. Dubois; M. Emre; J. Georges; I. G. McKeith ; M. Rossor; P. Scheltens; P. Tariska; B. Winblad, Article first published online: 9 JAN 2007, European Journal of Neurology Mahyar Etminan et al 2003,Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on risk of Alzheimers disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies   doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7407.128, BMJ. 2003 July 19; 327(7407): 128. Gary W Arendash, Takashi Mori, Chuanhai Cao, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Melissa Runfeldt, Alexander Dickson, Kavon Rezai-Zadeh, Jun Tan, Bruce A Citron, Xiaoyang Lin, Valentina Echeverria, and Huntington Potter. Caffeine Reverses Cognitive Impairment and Decreases Brain Amyloid-%u03B2 Levels in Aged Alzheimers Disease Mice. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, Volume 17:3 (July 2009) Chuanhai Cao, John R Cirrito, Xiaoyang Lin, Lilly Wang, Deborah K Verges, Alexander Dickson, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Chi Zhang, Takashi Mori, Gary W Arendash, David M Holzman, and Huntington Potter. Caffeine Suppresses Amyloid-%u03B2 Levels in Plasma and Brain of Alzheimers Disease Transgenic Mice. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, Volume 17:3 (July 2009) John B. Standridge MD (2004) Pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the prevention of Alzheimers disease, Department of Family Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine, Chattanooga Unit, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA. Zandi PP et al (2002 Nov 6), Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer disease in older women: the Cache County Study, JAMA. 288(17):2123-9. Postiglione A, Napoli C, (1995 Aug 6), Curr Opin Lipidol. Hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. (4):236-42 alz.org/national/documents/topicsheet_treatments.pdf ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC165707/?tool=pubmed webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/treatment-overview ant.org.tw/Mag_Files/19-4/B.19-4ra.pdf ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21213151 alz.org/downloads/Facts_Figures_2011.pdf cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Transmission-of-Nerve-Impulses.topicArticleId-22032,articleId-21935.html psychatlanta.com/documents/namenda.pdf

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Phyllis Schlafly Anti-Feminist Quotes

Phyllis Schlafly Anti-Feminist Quotes Phyllis Schlafly was perhaps most famous for her successful mobilization against the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution in the 1970s.   She is often associated with the backlash against the so-called second wave of feminism.   Before that, she was active in the ultraconservative wing of the Republican party, and she remained active on many conservative issues. See also: biography of Phyllis Schlafly About the ERA ERA means abortion funding, means homosexual privileges, means whatever else.   1999 About Feminism The cry of womens liberation leaps out from the lifestyle sections of newspapers and the pages of slick magazines, from radio speakers and television screens. Cut loose from past patterns of behavior and expectations, women of all ages are searching for their identity the college woman who has new alternatives thrust upon her via womens studies courses, the young woman whose routine is shattered by a chance encounter with a consciousness-raising session, the woman in her middle years who suddenly finds herself in the empty-nest syndrome, the woman of any age whose lover or lifetime partner departs for greener pastures (and a younger crop).   1977 The womens liberationist... is imprisoned by her own negative view of herself and of her place in the world around her.... Someone - it is not clear who, perhaps God, perhaps the Establishment, perhaps a conspiracy of male chauvinist pigs - dealt women a foul blow by making them female. It becomes necessary, therefore, for women to agitate and demonstrate and hurl demands on society in order to wrest from an oppressive male-dominated social structure the status that has been wrongfully denied to women through the centuries. 1977 Confrontation replaces cooperation as the watchword of all relationships. Women and men become adversaries instead of partners.... Within the confines of the womens liberationist ideology, therefore, the abolition of this overriding inequality of women becomes the primary goal. 1977 And the first commandment of feminism is: I am woman; thou shalt not tolerate strange gods who assert that women have capabilities or often choose roles that are different from mens. Feminism is doomed to failure because it is based on an attempt to repeal and restructure human nature. â€Å"The feminist movement taught women to see themselves as victims of an oppressive patriarchy.... Self-imposed victimhood is not a recipe for happiness.† The Womens Lib movement has sealed its own doom by deliberately hanging around its own neck the albatross of abortion, lesbianism, pornography and Federal control. News flash: one reason a woman gets married is to be supported by her husband while caring for her children at home. So long as her husband earns a good income, she doesnt care about the pay gap between them. Characterizing feminists: Someone, it is not clear who, perhaps God, dealt women a foul blow by making them female. Men should stop treating feminists like ladies, and instead treat them like the men they say they want to be. Another silliness of the womens liberationists is their frenetic desire to force all women to accept the title Ms in place of Miss or Mrs. If Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan want to call themselves Ms in order to conceal their marital status, their wishes should be respected. But most married women feel they worked hard for the r in their names; and they dont care to be gratuitously deprived of it... 1977 Womens Nature Without womans innate maternal instinct, the human race would have died out centuries ago....The overriding psychological need of a woman is to love something alive. A baby fulfills this need in the lives of most women. If a baby is not available to fill that need, women search for a baby-substitute. This is the reason why women have traditionally gone into teaching and nursing careers. They are doing what comes naturally to the female psyche. The schoolchild or the patient of any age provides an outlet for a woman to express her natural maternal need. 1977 Men are philosophers, women are practical, and twas ever thus. Men may philosophize about how life began and where we are heading; women are concerned about feeding the kids today. No woman would ever, as Karl Marx did, spend years reading political philosophy in the British Museum while her child starved to death. Women dont take naturally to a search for the intangible and the abstract.   1977 Where man is discursive, logical, abstract, or philosophical, woman tends to be emotional, personal, practical, or mystical. Each set of qualities is vital and complements the other. 1977 About Women and the Military Putting women in military combat is the cutting edge of the feminist goal to force us into an androgynous society. No country in history ever sent mothers of toddlers off to fight enemy soldiers until the United States did this in the Iraq war. Every country that has experimented with women in actual combat has abandoned the idea, and the notion that Israel uses women in combat is a feminist myth. Much of the demand for women in combat comes from female officers who are eager for medals and promotions. The purpose of our military is to field the finest troops possible to defend our nation and win wars. The goal of feminists however, is to impose a mindless equality, regardless of how many people it hurts. 2016 About Sex and Sexuality If man is targeted as the enemy, and the ultimate goal of womens liberation is independence from men and the avoidance of pregnancy and its consequences, then lesbianism is logically the highest form in the ritual of womens liberation. 1977 Sex education classes are like in-home sales parties for abortions. About why condoms should not be available to young women:  Its very healthy for a young girl to be deterred from promiscuity by fear of contracting a painful, incurable disease, or cervical cancer, or sterility, or the likelihood of giving birth to a dead, blind or brain-damage [sic]  baby (even ten years later when she may be happily married). â€Å"How did the court feel empowered to put new limits on the settled law of Meyer-Pierce and give public schools the power to override parents on teaching about sex? Simple. The three liberal judges based their decision on our evolving understanding of the nature of our Constitution.   2012 About Transgender Issues Anyone with a child knows that children learn about the world through binary options: up or down, hot or cold, big or little, inside or outside, wet or dry, good or bad, boy or girl, man or woman. But the radical feminists, who staff womens studies departments at most colleges, have propagated the idea that we have to get rid of the gender binary along with the expectation of distinct roles for men and women. About Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment on the job is not a problem for virtuous women. About the Republican Party [F]rom 1936 through 1960 the Republican presidential nominee was selected by a small group of secret kingmakers who are the most popular opinion makers in the world. 1964 About International Issues It should be clear that teaching Americans we are now part of a global economy and teaching schoolchildren they are citizens of the world is a deceitful message to con us into a plan to add the poor countries around the Earth to our list of welfare handout recipients. 2013 About the United Nations: We certainly dont need a committee of foreigners who call themselves experts to dictate our laws or customs.   2012 It is a mystery why any Americans would support the concept of the EU. About Multiculturalism, Diversity, Race,  Immigrants The United States is the worlds most stunning example of a nation that has peaceably and successfully assimilated people from many disparate cultures. So why are some people trying to separate us into factions, emphasizing what divides us instead of what unites us? 1995 You cant be an American if you dont speak English. Our public schools should be mandated to teach all children in English. The most dangerous area where our laws are not being faithfully executed are the laws designed to protect Americans against the millions of aliens who enter our country illegally every year. How can we protect homeland security unless the government stops the invasion of illegal aliens? Birth on U.S. territory has never been an absolute claim to citizenship. In a world of inhumanity, war and terrorism, American citizenship is a very precious possession. Its not the physical location of birth that defines citizenship, but whether your parents are citizens, and the express or implied consent to jurisdiction of the sovereign. About Climate Change Of course, climate changes. Many changes are due to factors over which humans have no control, such as winds, ocean currents and sun activity. But the liberals want us to believe that climate change is also caused by gases expelled when humans burn so-called fossil fuels.  Ã‚  2011 About the Family â€Å"The American nuclear family made America great, but few are now defending it against forces determined to destroy it. If America continues to have many immigrants with different family types, we are less likely to maintain American values of personal freedom, individualism, and limited government.†Ã‚  2014 What I am defending is the real rights of women. A woman should have the right to be in the home as a wife and mother. People think that child-support enforcement benefits children, but it doesnt. First of all, I want to thank my husband Fred, for letting me come I always like to say that, because it makes the libs so mad! The United States: Exceptionalism The United States is a giant island of freedom, achievement, wealth and prosperity in a world hostile to our values. Education, Schools The cornerstone of the political correctness that dominates campus culture is radical feminism. The worst censors are those prohibiting criticism of the theory of evolution in the classroom. After Big Media, U.S. colleges and universities are the biggest enemies of the values of red-state Americans. Parents, are you ready to teach your kids arithmetic? 2002 National Standards was not a narrative of past events but was leftwing revisionism and Political Correctness. It is long overdue for parents to realize they have the right and duty to protect our children against the intolerant evolutionists. Our public school system is our countrys biggest and most inefficient monopoly, yet it keeps demanding more and more money. The most frequent complaint I hear from college students is that professors inject their leftist political comments into their courses even when they have nothing to do with the subject. Behind frequent protestations by public officials about local control of the schools, a federal curriculum has been quietly imposed by law. All the pieces are now in place for this major goal of the Clinton administration. Elementary and secondary school education used to be organized around subjects such as reading, math, history, geography, language and science. While smatterings of those subjects are still taught, the focus has been shifted from academic subject matter to teaching attitudes, beliefs, values, themes, behaviors and job skills. This is indoctrination, not education. Left-wing professors write the textbooks and the teachers unions control the public schools, so the ideology is what those groups deem politically correct. 2002 About Government, Judges Congress should pass legislation to remove from the federal courts their jurisdiction to hear these outrageous challenges to the Ten Commandments and the Pledge of Allegiance. Under the nanny state of the left, nothing remains private for long. 2012 The justices have constitutionally protected obscenity in libraries, filth over cable television, and now unlimited internet pornography. About Obama â€Å"Obama has compiled a record of hostility to religion that is unmatched by any other president in American history. 2012 â€Å"Obama did not want to join a  historically Christian black church in Chicago that took traditional Christian doctrines seriously. Rather, he sought out  a liberal church that would help him advance his budding political career.† 2012 Should Obama win a second term, the justices he appoints will almost certainly unveil a bogus new constitutional right to gay marriage, discovered within the penumbras of Lawrence v. Texas. At which point Obama, drawing upon the faux-pained honesty he has perfected, can regurgitate what he wrote in his memoirs: that he was once on the wrong side of history† but has now happily come into the light.  2012 Others About Schlafly Betty Friedan in a 1973 debate with Schlafly: I would like to burn you at the stake.... I consider you a traitor to your sex, an Aunt Tom.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Nature Versus Nurture, which is responsible for leaders Assignment

Nature Versus Nurture, which is responsible for leaders - Assignment Example In order to understand whether or not leaders are natural born or nurtured into a leader, it is important to understand what exactly defines a leader and what type of traits a leader should posses. A leader can be defined as someone who is able to lead others. To lead others is to conduct plans and implement plans in a way other can easily follow. It is also important for a leader to be able to lead others in a way others will want to follow. Possessing a personality that is favored by many is a necessity for someone to be a leader. A leader is able to lead others into a specific event and lead others in a certain directions. Leaders need to have specific traits. Specific traits a leader should posses would include a strong personality. Strong personalities allow a leader to not easily be manipulated and stay focused. A leader must also posses’ traits that allow him or her to be organized. Being organized shows others that as a leader one is confident and well structured. A leader needs to work well under stress. Being able to work well under stress will allow for a leader to take on large tasks without easily becoming discouraged. The more personable one may be, the more able the leader is to obtain followers. A leader is not a leader unless people are willing to follow with their own free will and not by force or fear. Anyone can lead by fear but a true leader leads by personal choice. Knowing what a leader is and specific traits a leader should posses help to further explore the idea that leaders are both born with specific traits and nurtured by proper upbringing. Intelligence is a perfect example as to how leaders can be born leaders. A leader needs to have a certain level of intelligence in order to lead others. One who is born with a higher level of intelligence is able to learn fast, stay focused and keep up with the demand it takes to lead. It would be hard to lead others if one was lacking necessary skills such as